Reference Citations

At the end of your document, you will list all sources cited in a section called “References.” Each reference citation in this section should follow an APA template (see templates below) and the following rules:

  • All sources must be listed alphabetically (by the first word) in your reference citation
  • After the first line, all citations should be indented 1/2 inch
  • Double-space your citations
  • Journal and book titles should be in italics
  • Titles of journal articles should be lowercase except for the first word and the first word after a colon
  • Just like in-text citations, use “n.d.” if the source has no date of publication

Below are the formats for the most common sources you will encounter. “Author” means the author’s last name and “A.A.” stands for their first initials. Some templates have examples underneath. Follow these templates exactly. Scroll to the bottom of the page for a Sample APA Reference Page.

Reference Templates and Examples

Click on a source type below to see the APA reference citation format and an example:

Template

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Example

Netter, F. H., Jones, H. R., Srinivasan, J., Allam, G. J., & Baker, R. A. (2012). Netter’s Neurology. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders.

Template

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitleEditor’s name (Ed.). Location: Publisher.

Example

Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals. K. V. Kukil (Ed.). New York, NY: Anchor.

Template

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

Example

Plath, S. (2000). Journal 15. In K. V. Kukil (Ed.), The unabridged journals (237- 239). New York, NY: Anchor.

Template

Editor, A. A., & Editor, B. B. (Eds.). (Year of publication). Title of book. Location: Publisher.

**Editors and translators are required if no primary author can be determined.

Example

Leonard W. R. & Crawford M. H. (Eds.). (2002). Human biology of pastoral populations. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Template

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of book (Xth ed.). Location: Publisher.

Example

Mehrotra, C. M., & Wagner, L. S. (2009). Aging and diversity: An active learning experience  (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Template

Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of book [Reader version]. Retrieved from http://Web address

Example

Davis, J. (2007). Familiar birdsongs of the northwest [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/biblio?inkey=1-9780931686108-0

Template

Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of book. Retrieved from http://Web address

Example

Smith, J. (n.d.). Stories from an ER. Retrieved from http://www.powells.com/stories-from-an-er

Template

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. doi: ######.

Example

Pfeiffer, J. A., Wickline, M. A., Deetz, J., & Berry, E. S. (2012). Assessing RN-to-RN peer review on clinical units. Journal of Nursing Management20(3), 390-400. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2011.01321.x

 

*If there is no doi, write “Retrieved from” and the URL link to the article

Adams, R., & Marks, L. (2010). Professional issues: Peer review’s emerging role in radiation therapy practice. Radiation Therapist19(2), 96-99.  Retrieved from http://www.asrt.org/main/news-research/asrt-journals-magazines

Template

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from URL.

Example

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/05/06/psychiatry-handbook-linked-to-drug-industry/?_r=0

Template

Author, A. A. or Name of organization. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address

Example

Ginsburg, Anita. (2016, July 22). Six tips to help you provide better patient care. Retrieved from http://www.healthworkscollective.com/anita-ginsburg/347812/six-tips-help-you-provide-better-patient-care

Template

Name of organization. (n.d.). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address

Example

Regency Lanes Bowling Center. (n.d.). How to bowl like a pro. Retrieved from http://regencybowling.com/how-to-bowl.php

Template

Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day of post). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://Web address

Example

Apsolon, M. [Mark Apsolon]. (2011, September 9). Real ghost girl caught on Video Tape 14 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6nyGCbxD848

Template

Screen name. (Year, Month Day of post). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://Web address

Example

UTHealth SBMI. (2015, March 12). Careers in health informatics [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bMt6Nm405T8

Template

Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of presentation [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from http://Web address

Example

Garcia, J. (2018). Healthcare in the 21st century [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from www.jgarciaexample.com

Template

Author, A. A. Or Name of Organization. (Date of publication). Title of document [PDF document]. Retrieved from http://Web address

Example

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2004). Health care in america: Trends in utilization [PDF document]. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/misc/healthcare.pdf

Template

Interviews that you conduct yourself (also called personal communications) should not be listed in your reference section. Instead, you should just include an in-text parenthetical citation, using the following format:

(A. Author, personal communication, Date of communication).

Example

Most nurses get stressed out during overnight shifts and need a way to relax (J. Smith, personal communication, October 12, 2017).

 

Sample Reference Page

Shows an example of an APA style reference page

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Last Updated July 24, 2018